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Quantum physics



In physics, quantum mechanics (also known as wave mechanics in some of its interpretations) is one of the main branches of physics that explains the behavior of matter and energy. Its scope is intended to be universal (saving difficulties), but it is in the small world where its predictions radically diverge from the so-called classical physics.

Specifically, quantum mechanics is also considered, the part of itself that does not incorporate relativity into its formalism, only as added by perturbation theory. The part of quantum mechanics that does incorporate relativistic elements formally and with various problems, is relativistic quantum mechanics or, more accurately and potently, quantum field theory (which in turn includes quantum electrodynamics, chromodynamics and electroweak theory within the standard model) and more generally, quantum field theory in curved spacetime. The only interaction that could not be quantified has been the gravitational interaction. 

Quantum mechanics is the basis of studies of the atom, nuclei and elementary particles (relativistic treatment being necessary) but also in information theory, cryptography and chemistry.

Quantum mechanics is the last of the great branches of physics. It begins at the beginning of the 20th century, at the time when two of the theories that tried to explain what surrounds us, the law of universal gravitation and classical electromagnetic theory, became insufficient to explain certain phenomena. Electromagnetic theory generated a problem when trying to explain the emission of radiation from any object in equilibrium, called thermal radiation, which is what comes from the microscopic vibration of the particles that compose it. Well, using the equations of classical electrodynamics, the energy emitted by this thermal radiation was infinite if all the frequencies emitted by the object were added, with illogical results for physicists.

It is within statistical mechanics that quantum ideas are born in 1900. Louis de Broglie proposed that each material particle has a wavelength, associated inversely proportional to its mass, (called momentum), and given by its velocity. The physicist Max Planck came up with a mathematical trick: that if in the arithmetic process the integral of these frequencies was replaced by a non-continuous sum, an infinity was no longer obtained as a result, thus eliminating the problem and, in addition, the result obtained agreed with what was later measured. It was Max Planck who then enunciated the hypothesis that electromagnetic radiation is absorbed and emitted by matter in the form of quanta of light or photons of energy through a statistical constant, which was called Planck’s constant. Its history is inherent to the twentieth century,

Planck’s idea would have remained many years only as a hypothesis if Albert Einstein had not retaken it, proposing that light, in certain circumstances, behaves as independent particles of energy (quanta of light or photons). It was Albert Einstein who completed in 1905 the corresponding laws of motion with what is known as the special theory of relativity, demonstrating that electromagnetism was an essentially non-mechanical theory. Thus culminated what has been called classical physics, that is, non-quantum physics. He used this view called by him “heuristic”, to develop his theory of photoelectric effect. He published this hypothesis in 1905 and won the 1921 Nobel Prize. This hypothesis was also applied to propose a theory on specific heat,



The speeds of the constituent particles should not be very high, or close to the speed of light.

Quantum mechanics breaks with any paradigm of physics until that moment, with it it is discovered that the atomic world does not behave as we would expect. The concepts of uncertainty, indeterminacy or quantization are first introduced here. In addition, quantum mechanics is the scientific theory that has provided the most accurate experimental predictions so far, despite being subject to the probabilities.

Quantum theory was developed in its basic form throughout the first half of the twentieth century. The fact that the energy is exchanged discreetly was highlighted by experimental facts such as the following, inexplicable with the “previous” theoretical tools of classical mechanics or electrodynamics:

Black body radiation spectrum, resolved by Max Planck with the quantization of energy. The total energy of the black body turned out to take discrete rather than continuous values. This development was known as quantisation, and also the smallest attainable intervals between distinct values are known as quanta (singular: quantum, from the Latin word for “quantity”, therefore the name of quantum mechanics).The size of a quantum is a fixed value called Planck’s constant, and it is worth: 6,626 × 10 -34 : joules per second.

Under certain experimental conditions, microscopic objects such as atoms or electrons exhibit wave behavior, such as interference. Under other conditions, the same species of objects exhibit a corpuscular, particle behavior (“particle” means an object that can be located in a special region of Space), as in the dispersion of particles. This phenomenon is known as wave-particle duality.

The physical properties of objects with related stories can be correlated in an amplitude prohibited by any classical theory, in an amplitude such that they can only be accurately described if we refer to both at the same time. This phenomenon is called quantum entanglement and Bell’s inequality describes its difference with ordinary correlation. The measures of the violations of the inequality of Bell were of the greater verifications of the quantum mechanics.



Explanation of the photoelectric effect, given by Albert Einstein, in which that “mysterious” need to quantify energy reappeared.

Compton effect

The formal development of the theory was the work of the joint efforts of several physicists and mathematicians of the time such as Schrödinger, Heisenberg, Einstein, Dirac, Bohr and Von Neumann among others (the list is long). Some of the fundamental aspects of the theory are still being actively studied. Quantum mechanics has also been adopted as the underlying theory of many fields of physics and chemistry, including condensed matter physics, quantum chemistry and particle physics.

The region of origin of quantum mechanics can be located in central Europe, in Germany and Austria, and in the historical context of the first third of the twentieth century.

The modern world of physics is remarkably based on two main theories, general relativity and quantum mechanics, although both theories seem to contradict each other. The postulates that define Einstein’s theory of relativity and quantum theory are unquestionably supported by rigorous and repeated empirical evidence. However, both resist being incorporated into the same coherent model.

Einstein himself is known to have rejected some of the demands of quantum mechanics. Despite being clearly inventive in his field, Einstein did not accept the orthodox interpretation of quantum mechanics such as the assertion that a single subatomic particle can occupy numerous spaces at the same time. Einstein also did not accept the consequences of even more exotic quantum entanglement of the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (or EPR) paradox, which demonstrates that measuring the state of a particle can instantly change the state of its bound partner, although the two particles can Be at an arbitrary distance. However, this effect does not violate causality, since there is no possible transfer of information. In fact, there are quantum theories that incorporate special relativity – for example,

Why quantum?

Einstein gave a good explanation and analogy with real life about the meaning of the quantum word and how many. In his book “Physics, adventure of thought” says that for example in a coal mine the production can vary in a continuous way, if we accept any unit of measure, however small. In other words, we could say that 1 more granite of coal was produced than yesterday. What we cannot do is to express the variation in personnel continuously, it makes no sense to talk about the increase in personnel by 1.80 people, that is, the measure of the number of personnel is discrete and not continuous. Another example, a sum of money can only vary from jumps, discontinuously. The minimum unit for money is the penny. We say then that certain magnitudes change in a continuous way and others in a discontinuous or discrete way, that is to say by elementary quantities or steps that cannot be reduced indefinitely. These minimum and indivisible steps are called elementary quanta of the magnitude in question. It is clear that by increasing the precision of how measurements of any magnitude are made, units that were considered indivisible cease to be so and adopt an even smaller value. That is, certain magnitudes that are considered continuous may have a discrete nature. It is clear that by increasing the precision of how measurements of any magnitude are made, units that were considered indivisible cease to be so and adopt an even smaller value. That is, certain magnitudes that are considered continuous may have a discrete nature. It is evident that by increasing the precision of how measurements of any magnitude are carried out, units that were considered indivisible cease to be so and adopt an even smaller value. That is, certain magnitudes that are considered continuous may have a discrete nature.

In physics, certain magnitudes considered for many years as continuous, are actually composed of elementary quanta. Energy is one of these magnitudes that when studying the phenomena of the world of atoms, it was detected that its nature was not continuous but discrete and that there is a minimum unit or quantum unit of energy. This was the discovery of Max Planck with which the quantum theory begins.

How much or quantum used as a noun refers to the smallest amount of something that is possible to have. In the world of classical physics there is the concept that all physical parameters such as energy, speed, distance traveled by an object, are continuous. To understand what this is about, let’s think about the thermometer that measures the temperature, when we see that it increases by one degree, it actually increases first by one tenth of a degree and thus following before by one millionth of a degree etc., etc. In other words, the process of temperature increase that we measure with the thermometer says that it is continuous. Well in the world of quantum physics this is not so, specifically when Max Planck studied how radiation was produced from an incandescent body, His explanation was that the atoms that make up the incandescent body, when they released energy in the form of radiation, did so not continuously, but in small blocks that he called energy quanta. The strange thing about this whole process or Planck’s explanation is that there are no intermediate positions, that is, there are no means how many or a quarter of how many. It is as if in the case of the thermometer the fraction of degree did not exist, simply the temperature that is in 20º goes from blow to 21º. We say strange because what common sense indicates is that the temperature of an object increases when it receives heat / energy; If the body is at 20º and I give it heat in a small amount, it will not be enough for it to increase by one degree to 21º but for something to increase. In the quantum world it is as if those small quantities are stored somewhere without manifesting in any way (without increasing body temperature), so that suddenly when the amount of heat transmitted reached a value such that the thermometer now shows yes an increase of 1º, marking 21º. What happened in between?. Well this, although it does not occur in the case of temperature but is only an analogy to understand, is what actually occurs in the quantum world. All the particles that make up the physical universe must move in quantum leaps. A body cannot absorb or emit light energy in any arbitrary quantity but only as integer multiples of a basic quantity or how much. Returning to the strangeness of these phenomena, let’s imagine for a moment another analogy: we are throwing stones in a pond of calm water. Common sense given by the experience we accumulate over time tells us that by doing this waves will occur in the pond that are the product of the energy that the stone transmitted when it fell into the water. A quantum pond, would behave differently, when throwing one or several stones nothing will happen, and suddenly without any connection between the cause (throwing stones) and the effect (waves are generated on the surface), the pond will begin to vibrate with waves, until suddenly it will calm down again for more than at that time we are throwing stones. If all the stones are the same size, and thrown from the same height, they will deliver the same amount of energy to the water. If this amount of energy turns out to be less than the amount of energy,



I want to emphasize the strangeness of this phenomenon, calling attention to the fact that the quantum is not an amount that can be subdivided, that is, the concept of continuity loses significance, between 0 and the quantum there is nothing. They are states that nature does not allow. This is the essential characteristic of Planck’s discovery when studying the phenomena called black body radiation (a topic that will be developed later): there is a lower limit to the energy change (absorption or emission of energy in the form of light) that an atom can to experience.

The dimensions of the atomic world and its relationship with the macro world

Physics that studies and explains the phenomena that occur in the domain of atoms, their nuclei and elementary particles is called quantum; and the basic mathematical theory that explains the movements and relationships in this field is called quantum mechanics. However, one should not think that quantum physics does not correspond to the macroscopic world, in reality all physics is quantum; and its laws, as we know them today, constitute our MOST GENERAL laws of nature.

In the macroscopic world the laws of nature that have been discovered are the so-called laws of classical physics; These aspects deal with those aspects of nature for which the question of what is the ultimate constitution of the matter is not something that matters immediately. When we apply the laws of classical physics to macroscopic systems we try to describe only certain global features of the system’s behavior. The finest details of system behavior are ignored. In this sense, the laws of classical physics are approximate laws of nature and we must consider them as limit forms of the laws of quantum physics, more fundamental and covering much more. Classical theories are phenomenological theories. A phenomenological theory attempts to discover and summarize experimental facts within a certain limited domain of physics. It is not intended to describe everything in the realm of physics, but if it is a good phenomenological theory, it will describe very precisely any aspect within that limited domain. In reality, every physical theory is phenomenological (it deals with the phenomena or events or events that occur).

As we say, classical theories do not have universal validity, although they are very good phenomenological theories, they do not say everything about macroscopic bodies. For example, we cannot explain why the densities are what they are, why the elastic constants of the materials have the values ​​they have, why a bar breaks when we subject it to a tension beyond a certain limit, why copper melts at 1083 ° C, why sodium vapor emits yellow light, why the sun shines, why the uranium nucleus spontaneously disintegrates, why silver conducts electricity, why sulfur does not conduct electricity; You could continue with many examples of everyday life or that have some impact on many of the things in this daily life, about which classical physics has little or nothing to tell us.

Man was always and continues to be interested in knowing or being able to explain where it came from and how everything works, and that is why he investigates looking to know if there is a general theory of matter. Today we do not have a detailed theory for everything that happens in our world, however, and especially in the twentieth century, much progress has been made, for example, now understanding very well the facts of chemistry and the properties of macroscopic matter; In these domains of physics one can now answer questions that could not be resolved within classical theory.

We can say today that the standard model of particle physics, which is based on the rules of quantum mechanics, tells us how the world is built from certain fundamental blocks, which hold together thanks to the exchange of energy in form of particles; but we do not believe that this standard model is the definitive one since the human being through his intelligence continues in the search. Now I wonder why is he still searching? Will there be something innate, genetic, embedded in the nature of the man that leads him to this search? Is it a call or a message left by someone? Is it the similarity of a creative God that we have incorporated? It is very likely that nobody is interested in this as to devote more than a fraction of his time; but we cannot say that whatever the duration of that fraction is,

When physicist Max Planck, studied black body radiation, which is an incandescent body, he drew his conclusion that energy was absorbed and emitted in quanta of energy proportional to the frequency of the light being radiated. The constant of this proportionality is a number, very, very small, of the order of 10 -34, which is 0.0000000000000000000000000000001. It is good now to try to have a certain sensibility to realize how far our daily experiences are from what we call the quantum world. If there were a lump of sugar of that dimension in cm, we would need several billion (exactly 10 34) of said objects to cover the distance of 1 cm. Let’s see what this is in our reality. If we took the same amount of sugar cubes (10 34 ) and put them next to each other, they would cover a distance of 1000 million light years. The quantum world operates on a much smaller scale than the relationship between the dimension of a lump of sugar and that of the entire observable universe.



Let us pause a moment in the dimension of an atom. If we accept as a model that of a nucleus and an external “cloud” of electrons, the dimension of the nucleus is 10 -13 cm and that of the entire atom, that is, with the electron cloud is 10 -8 cm; to perceive the relationship, if the nucleus were 1 cm, the cloud of the outermost electrons, would be at a distance of 10 5 cm this is 1 km.

Historical tour

So the quantum world is the world of the smallest parts that constitute matter, the microworld, the world of subatomic particles. The first subatomic particle that was the electron was just discovered in 1897. Particle physicists have developed models to understand what things are made of and how the different component parts interact with each other. The standard model of particle physics, based on the rules of quantum mechanics, tells us how the world is built by tiny fundamental blocks of quarks and leptons that are held together by the exchange of particles called gluons and bosons. Unfortunately this model does not include everything, for example it does not include the gravitational field. The structure of theoretical physics in the twentieth century was built on two major theories, the General Theory of Relativity, which describes gravity and the macro universe, and Quantum Mechanics that describes the microworld. The unification of both in a theory that encompasses everything is what scientists in the 21st century are looking for, even without achieving it. Notwithstanding this search, any improved physical theory will include quantum theory, and none of these theories may perhaps explain the strangeness of the quantum world, to the standards used in daily life and people’s common sense. Quantum defies common sense, or rather it makes no sense even though it explains with unusual precision all the phenomena that occur in the world of subatomic particles. One of the classic examples is the phenomenon of the double identity of light, and of all known particles. Double identity given by the wave identity and the particle identity. JJ Thompson opened the microworld to research when he discovered the electron as a particle. Three decades later, his son George Thompson proved that electrons were waves. Both were right and both won the Nobel Prize for their research. An electron is then a particle and is also a wave, or rather, it is neither one thing nor the other but it is a quantum entity that responds to certain experiments behaving like a wave and other experiments of other characteristics behaving like a particle. The same goes for the light, which can behave as a beam of particles called photons or as a set of waves of different wavelengths, depending on the circumstances. By the way, light is both, although it does not manifest itself clearly in our daily lives, which is why we do not consider the consequences of this double identity as something clear to our common sense.

All this is also related to the phenomenon of quantum uncertainty; which means that a quantum entity for example a moving electron does not have a set of well-defined or defined properties such as those that we could find that has a billiard ball when rolling along the plush of a table where it clearly has a speed and a certain position at every moment. The quantum entity, in our case the electron in motion or orbit around a nucleus, or moving through a conductive wire of electric current, cannot know precisely where it is or where it is going. What is mentioned here may seem like a totally irrelevant phenomenon, something of no importance to our daily lives (who can care, what an electron does !!). But in reality it is this quantum uncertainty, which allows a nucleus of a hydrogen molecule to join each other in a process called nuclear fusion, which is the basic source of solar energy. This means neither more nor less than if this concept of quantum uncertainty did not exist, the sun would not be what it is, and therefore we would never ask ourselves about these “trivial” and “meaningless” things because we simply would not exist.

Quantum physics is not a meaningless academic and intellectual exercise for life. It is necessary to know this branch of physics to build a nuclear plant as well as a nuclear bomb, to design laser mechanisms, which allow from listening to music on a CD to reading information stored on the hard disk of a PC or mechanisms similar to the laser used to amplify satellite signals that feed what we see on TV.

Quantum physics is important in the design and operation of everything that contains semiconductors – chips for PC, TV, audio equipment, washing machines, cars, cell phones -. Semiconductors are materials that have intermediate properties between insulators (those in which the electrons of the atoms of the element that make up the insulating material are firmly linked to the nucleus of said atoms) and the conductive materials (in which the electrons are free of ties and move freely through the conductive material). In a semiconductor, some electrons are barely bound to their nuclei and can jump into other nuclei and thus move in a specific way following certain quantum rules known as Fermi-Dirac statistics.

The electrons that are in the outermost part of the atoms of the elements, are those that form the interfaces between the different atoms and molecules that thus form all known chemical compounds. The behavior of electrons in atoms and molecules can only be explained through quantum physics, that is, all chemistry is explained through quantum physics. Life itself is based on complex chemical interactions, the most notable of all being the archetype of life’s molecule, DNA. This molecule has the ability to unfold and produce a similar copy of itself. Certain ligatures that hold these DNA molecules together and allow this splitting process are a kind of chemical bonding or bonding called hydrogen bonding, in which the nucleus of a hydrogen atom is shared between two atoms or between two molecules forming the bond between them. The fundamental way in which life processes operate can only be explained through quantum processes that operate in these hydrogen bonding systems. In genetics, in order to be able to separate genes, in order to add new genetic information and integrate them to their original state, it is necessary to understand how and why atoms join together and in a certain sequence but not in other possible ones, why certain unions are more powerful than others, and why certain unions keep atoms and molecules separated at certain fixed distances. You can know all this by trial and error, without understanding the laws of quantum physics that govern these processes,

When we speak here in these examples of understanding or describing phenomena, we do not refer to a description in general terms in a qualitative way. On the contrary, quantum physics allows calculations with amazing precision. The greatest triumph of theoretical quantum physics is the theory that describes the interaction between light (any electromagnetic radiation) and matter (matter represented by electrons, which are one of the basic components of it). This theory is called Quantum Electrodynamics (QED) and was developed by physicist Richard Feynman. It explains any type of interaction that can occur between electromagnetic waves and electrons of matter with an accuracy of four parts in 100,000 million. It is the most precise scientific theory ever developed, judging it by a criterion about how accurately the theory allows to predict the experimental results. To give us an idea of ​​what we are talking about, it is as accurate as if we calculate the distance between New York and Los Angeles with a maximum error equal to the diameter of a hair.

Using the same reasoning scheme as this successful theory, a similar one was constructed, trying to explain what happens inside the protons and neutrons – particles that are the fundamental components in the nucleus of any atom – this new theory was called Quantum Chromodynamics ( QCD) Currently both theories are the components of a standard model that explains the basic composition of matter, that is, everything that exists.

JJThompson would never have imagined the path that science would follow after its discovery of the electron, although in reality the first steps towards the development of quantum physics were not taken from the research on the electron, but on the other component of the interaction fundamental developed in the QED: the light in its corpuscular meaning: the photons.

At the end of the nineteenth century, nobody thought that light could behave like particles called photons, observations of many phenomena showed that light behaved like a wave, the equations of electromagnetism discovered by James Clerk Maxwell described light as a wave. But it was Max Planck who discovered that certain characteristics of the way in which light is emitted and absorbed by a body, could only be explained if the radiation produced by the emitting body occurred in packages of a certain fixed size, which he called how many of light.

His theory at first was considered a mathematical artifice, but in fact the light was a wave, not even Planck considered that it had any real meaning, it was something like closing the numbers. The first to consider this idea of ​​light as a particle was Einstein although he was still very young and not taken into account by the scientific community. He used this concept to explain a phenomenon known as Photoelectric Effect, in a paper written in 1905. Many years passed, even with scientists trying to prove that this concept was wrong (Robert Millikan), so that it was finally accepted as valid and thus Einstein received for his work the Nobel Prize in 1921.

During the same period, other scientists, led by Niels Bohr, applied the concepts of quantum physics to understand and develop new models of the structure of atoms. The model thus developed allowed to explain certain phenomena that until then seemed magical, such as the way in which atoms of different elements produced light and dark lines at precisely defined wavelengths according to each element used, in the refraction spectra experiments of the light emitted by these elements. Perhaps here it is worth some clarification about this concept of spectra. Every chemical element, for example hydrogen, or nickel, or silver, or carbon, or chlorine, to name a few and know what we mean by saying the word chemical element; It is associated with a single optical spectrum, which is obtained from the light emitted when said element is heated until its incandescence. Not only do atoms have characteristic spectra, but the molecules formed by different atoms also have them, and so do the nuclei of the atoms. This spectrum means that these objects (nuclei, atoms, molecules) when they receive energy in some form (heating) emit (also absorb) electromagnetic radiation at certain defined frequencies ranging from the region of the radio frequencies for the molecules, to the region of very short wavelength X-rays or g-rays for nuclei. With these radiations refraction experiments can be carried out whose result is what is called an electromagnetic spectrum, those bands or lines of light and dark that we mentioned. Optical spectra, that is, those within the range corresponding to visible radiation (light) were discovered in the nineteenth century although they had no scientific explanation, at least within what classical physics allowed. 

 To further clarify this phenomenon, it should be taken into account that in the study called spectroscopy, there are three different experiments:

Incandescent solid; which consists of heating a solid until it produces a white light (the light bulb), this light contains all the frequencies of the visible spectrum. When this beam of light is passed through a slot and then hit the narrow part of a prism, the so-called continuous spectrum of colors (the rainbow) can be seen on a screen, on the other side of the prism.

Hot monatomic gas (one element); if we use the same device of the slot and the prism, but the beam of light now comes from a chamber with a gas at a temperature that emits light, the spectrum we will see on the screen is no longer continuous. Now you will see bright lines with the shape of the groove on the screen and each line with the color corresponding to the continuous spectrum that we mentioned in the previous case. Different types of gases produce different line spectra. The integrating properties of the human eye prevent us from seeing the lines, so that the molten colors are perceived as one thing, for example we see the light of the incandescent pawn gas reddish, the light of the gasified sodium light. These spectra of lines produced by heating gases, called emission spectra.

Cold monoatomic gas (at room temperature): we combine the two previous experiments. We heat the solid until its incandescence, the light that it emits is passed through a chamber where a cold gas is housed, the beam of light that follows its path after passing through the cold gas, is passed through the groove and the prism What is it? On the screen we will now see a spectrum of dark lines, located in the same positions as the bright lines were in the previous case. This indicates that the cold gas is absorbing energy at the same frequency it emits when it is hot. This spectrum is called absorption

Currently the explanation for these phenomena is given by quantum physics stating that the spectra are interpreted in terms of energy levels of atoms, molecules and nuclei. The study of the spectra leads us to know that, associated with each compound system (nuclei = protons + neutrons; atoms = nuclei + electrons; molecules = atom + atom), there is a set of energetic levels or stationary states that are a characteristic of system to which we refer. These levels manifest themselves very directly and invariably in the spectra we observe. What does this mean? : Until the existence of the electron was known, this was a total mystery. With the arrival of the electron and Bohr’s ingenuity, a theory began to be woven about the atomic model that had some congruence with the phenomena observed from spectroscopy. Thus some principles were raised:

a) The electrons that are part of an atom can exist only in certain stationary states of internal motion, these states form a discrete (non-continuous) set, and each state is characterized by a certain value of total energy. They are like the steps on a ladder.

b) When an atom emits or absorbs energy, this phenomenon is manifested by the radiation or absorption of what we call a photon or electromagnetic wave. What is happening is that the electrons in the atom jump from one stationary state to another, pass from one step to another. If this jump is from a higher level of energy to a lower level, the difference in energy, that is, what is left over must be emitted. This is what happens, an energy particle called a photon is emitted that is equal to the difference in energy between the two levels. This photon will be within the spectrum of electromagnetic radiation according to its frequency. The relationship between energy and frequency is given by the Planck equation E = hn, where h is a universal constant (the Planck constant we already mentioned) and n is the photon frequency.



The reality is that the higher energy states are not totally stationary since from these the electrons would spontaneously fall towards the ones with the lowest allowed energy, thus emitting photons. To reach these higher states, energy must be delivered to the system (atom, nucleus or molecule) through some mechanism such as heating, electric shock, which will then be lost in the emission as described above.

Each spectral line we see will then correspond to a certain frequency that will be related to the allowed energy states according to the Planck equation:

E (1) – E (0) = hn, where E (1) and E (0) are states of energy, yh = 6.63×10 -34 joules.sec. The strange idea behind this explanation developed by Bohr, is that when the jump between one energy level and another occurs – between the steps of the ladder – electrons do not occupy any intermediate level, this is what was called a quantum jump, that is, an electron is first in a certain place and then disappears and appears instantaneously in another.

Although Bohr considered electrons as particles and light as a wave in his development, Einstein’s concept of the existence of two theories of light (waves and particles) which were not connected in a logical way had already been accepted . Then another renowned scientist appears: Louis de Broglie, who suggested a similar treatment for electrons, that is, these are not only particles but also waves and that in reality what is traveling is in orbit around the nucleus of an atom is not a particle but a standing wave, like that of the string of a violin that is fixed at its two ends. This idea, although rare, allowed us to better explain the so-called quantum leap of electrons when they traveled from one energy level to another. Now it could be explained in terms of wave vibration, when changing from one harmonic to another. Subsequently another renowned scientist Erwin Schrödinger, developed a complete mathematical description of the behavior of electrons in atoms, based on the idea of ​​wave. Other mathematical descriptions explaining the behaviors of electrons were appearing at the hands of Heisenberg, Paul Dirac, all of them equivalent but with different visions about the meaning of the same quantum world, thus the different quantum realities emerged. No matter what equations were used, they all described the same phenomena giving the same results. However, since scientists were more familiar in working with wave equations (wave mechanics), they were those developed by Schrödinger based on the electron wave function, those that became conventional to develop calculations in what was called quantum mechanics. Already at the end of 1920 the physicists had different mathematical menus to describe the microworld, all these working perfectly well with a high degree of precision in all the predictions about real experiments that were performed; the bad thing was that they all included some of the concepts that were strange to common sense, such as quantum leap, wave-particle duality, or the uncertainty principle. all these working perfectly well with a high degree of precision in all predictions about actual experiments that were performed; the bad thing was that they all included some of the concepts that were strange to common sense, such as quantum leap, wave-particle duality, or the uncertainty principle. all these working perfectly well with a high degree of precision in all predictions about actual experiments that were performed; the bad thing was that they all included some of the concepts that were strange to common sense, such as quantum leap, wave-particle duality, or the uncertainty principle.

Bohr was the first to develop an idea about the reality of the quantum world, called the Copenhagen interpretation. This says that electrons or any quantum entity do not exist as long as they are not observed, but what exists is a cloud of probabilities that measures the probability that the entity is in a certain place at a certain time . When we decide to observe this quantum entity (the electron for example), what is called a “collapse” of the wave function occurs, in which the entity randomly chooses a position to be located, that is the position that The observer will detect. Once the observation ceases,

Here it is necessary to return to the chapter of the waves. Max Born, another physicist of the time, connected quantum waves with real events in an innovative way. Quantum waves, that is, those that describe quantum entities such as electrons, follow the same rules as any of the physical waves mentioned, the water in the sink, the sound, the electromagnetic waves. In other words, they can be added, superimposed, interfered with. We had said that Waves are characterized by the medium that vibrates to produce the waves that transmit energy; water in the case of water waves, air for sound waves, electric and magnetic fields for electromagnetic waves. In the case of quantum waves that are a special type of wave, they are oscillations of probabilities. Quantum waves, unlike common waves, do not transfer energy, so they are called empty waves. The amplitude of the quantum wave squared, which is known as the intensity in the wave motion, is a measure of probability. Probability of what? That a quantum entity, the electron for example, is in a certain position. Recall that for common waves the amplitude squared gave a measure of the energy carried by the wave in question. is in a certain position. Recall that for common waves the amplitude squared gave a measure of the energy carried by the wave in question. is in a certain position. Recall that for common waves the amplitude squared gave a measure of the energy carried by the wave in question.

Arriving at the end of this story, it is important to mention that two monsters of science, Einstein and Bohr held opposite positions; Bohr defending the foundations of quantum through explanations that did not fit with common sense, Einstein quite the opposite saying that he could not accept the implicit rupture in all explanations of quantum physics. For all the phenomena of nature, they should be based on what was called “local reality.” What is the meaning of this expression?

Reality means that all quantum entities are real even when they are not observed, and not as it was argued that these quantum entities (the electron) only existed as clouds of probabilities as long as they are not observed, to materialize in a particular particle when observed.

Local means that nothing can be transmitted at a speed greater than that of light, not even the information given that it will travel in electromagnetic waves at that speed.

These concepts, which had the approval of the common sense defense scientists, were not accepted by the quantum (Bohr), who maintained that in the quantum world both cannot occur, or the entities are real and then there is transmission of information to a speed greater than that of light, or if this is not possible, then quantum entities are not real and only exist at the moment they are observed.

In spite of the strangeness of these ideas, in an experiment carried out in Paris in 1982 by the scientist Alain Aspect, using quantum entities as photons, it was shown that the predictions of quantum physics were correct: the quantum world cannot be composed at the same time of real entities and be local (light as maximum transmission speed). This means that the microworld does not work according to the rules of common sense determined by our daily experiences. But as Feynman said more than thirty years ago: “nobody understands quantum phenomena; but let’s not worry about asking ourselves why nature behaves like this, but let’s marvel at the knowledge of how nature behaves. ”

Einstein, Bohr, Planck, Schrödinger, de Broglie, Heisenberg, Born, Dirac, Pauli, Feynman, Gell-Mann

The development of quantum physics was the effort of many men of science who over the course of 25 years revolutionized a field that was believed to be finished for new advances, and that continues to this day. The idea here is simply to remember those monsters of science, with some personal data and mentions about what their achievements were, some of which have been developed throughout this work.

Albert Einstein (1879-1955): The most notable thing about this man was that with his work on the photoelectric effect, I confirm in some way Planck’s advances regarding the existence of the energy quanta. However, he fought until the end of his life against the interpretation given to this physics that he helped to be born. No doubt the world knows Einstein for his Theory of Relativity, in its special and general versions. This theory together with the quantum were the ones that took the classics from sleep. Einstein was born in the city of Ulm, won the Nobel Prize not for his two theories of relativity but for the aforementioned photoelectric effect. When he wanted to enter the technical school in Zurich, he failed to enter, so he had to spend a year reinforcing his knowledge of mathematics before he could enter. He was not a brilliant student, He did not easily get a job upon graduation and had to settle for a minor job at a patent office in Bern. There in his spare time he was developing scientific works that finally allowed him to reach his doctorate. It was from 1909, that I managed to enter as a professor at the University of Zurich. With Hitler’s arrival in Germany, Einstein moved to Princeton USA where he remained from 1933 until his death. Never as we said I accept the Copenhagen interpretation of Niels Bohr, with his famous saying that “God does not play dice”, so, in his opinion, there should be some mechanism or hidden variables that made the Universe explainable within human logic, and with a more deterministic character and not so probabilistic in their behaviors,



Niels Bohr (1885-1962):Danish physicist who won the Nobel Prize for his work on the structure of the atom based on spectroscopy and quantum physics. He began his work with JJThomson but was not successful in his personal relationship with this physicist. He then moved to Manchester to work with Ernest Rutherford who had recently discovered the atomic structure consisting of a nucleus in the center and charged particles (electrons) as in orbits around the nucleus. In 1916, the authorities of Denmark offered him a chair and the promise to set up his own Institute. Thus in 1918, the Institute of Theoretical Physics was established with donations, mainly from the Carlsberg brewery, being Bohr appointed Director, a position he held until his death. Within that Institute, Bohr attracted the best theoretical physicists of the moment to work for shorter or longer periods, providing stimuli for the development of ideas about quantum theory. The interpretation that emerged from this Institute, became one of the classic ones for quantum physics, is known as the Copenhagen interpretation. While many contributed to strengthen this interpretation of quantum physics, Bohr’s strong personality and personal prestige were decisive factors for the Copenhagen interpretation to be “the accepted interpretation of quantum mechanics,” despite its shortcomings. , until the 80s and 90s. Bohr always had a concern related to the possibility of building nuclear weapons from the development of his theories. After the war,

Bohr’s main contribution as we said was his development of the atomic models. In this, Bohr said that electrons that are in orbit around the nucleus, do not spiral as predicted by electromagnetic theory, but that they are in stable orbits, corresponding to certain fixed levels of energy, where they can be maintained without losing Energy. These fixed levels do not adopt any value, but are integer multiples of a minimum quantity: the quantum of energy. In this way there are only these orbits allowed and among them nothing, that is, there are no intermediate orbits. This quantum of energy is measured in terms of Planck’s constant h. An electron, as Bohr explained, can jump from one permitted orbit to another, either by emitting excess energy, if it passes from an orbit of greater energy to one of lesser (process of approach to the nucleus), or absorbing energy in the opposite case. This quantum of energy that it emits or absorbs, does so in the form of a photon whose energy is what results from the Planck formula DE = hn, where n is the frequency of the photon to be emitted or absorbed. In addition Bohr added the concept that the orbits allowed cannot house an unlimited number of electrons but can be completed. The graphic or visual representation of this model is that of electrons that, like pellets, are located on the steps of a ladder whose capacity is limited. When a step takes place free, another electron located on an upper step can fall towards that free place, losing the energy corresponding to the jump or height difference between both steps. These falls and rises explained the emission and absorption lines in the spectra of the light emitted by the atoms of monoatomic gases. Bohr’s genius was that he did not pretend or worry about putting together a complete and consistent theory of the atomic world, but instead took part in quantum theory (the quantum of energy), part of the classical (orbits) and combined them to Try to explain unexplained phenomena up to that moment. Bohr explained this model in England during 1913 with different fate, some accepted it and continued advancing on it, others rejected it. Finally in 1922 Bohr receives the Nobel Prize due to this work. The advances were slow, Bohr’s model allowed many more lines in the spectra than they actually looked. The limitation of the amount of electrons in each orbit allowed, was also an arbitrary idea and without apparent verification. These properties were organized by assigning numbers, called quantum numbers, that served to describe the state of the atom and make its behavior validated by observations. Bohr did not give at that time any theoretical explanation of where these quantum numbers came from or why some transitions were not allowed. Despite all these weak points, the model worked. He predicted the existence of lines in the spectrum that until now had not been detected but were then detected experimentally in the exact places where the model predicted them.



Max Planck (1858-1947):German physicist who was the first to realize at the end of the 19th century that the radiation of a black body (a perfect radiator) could be explained if it was considered that the electromagnetic energy absorbed or irradiated, only did so in a discrete and non-continuous way, in How many or packages of energy. Planck did not think about the existence of the later called photons, but it was simply his way of explaining the interaction between the atoms that oscillated when heated and the radiations that were generated inside this radiant body, interaction that should be maintained in Balance. Planck was an excellent pianist, playing sometimes with Einstein who accompanied him with the violin. He was a professor of physics at the University of Berlin from 1892 until his retirement in 1926 when he was succeeded by Erwin Schrodinger, another one of the makers of quantum. Planck was an old-school physicist who worked very hard and was extremely conservative in his ideas, his great interest was thermodynamics, hence his interest in trying to solve what was known as the ultraviolet catastrophe by applying concepts of thermodynamics. While he was frustrated at not achieving an acceptable solution and a correct explanation of the radiation spectra; I publish several works that established a connection between thermodynamics and electrodynamics. His achievement in inventing his famous constant h, It was not something cold and thoughtful but it resulted from a practically desperate state in which he found himself to be able to find a satisfactory solution to the dilemma that arose between two incomplete and seemingly contradictory proposals about electromagnetic radiation (Rayleigh-Jeans laws and from Wien). In this process he devised some mathematical artifice so that both could be made compatible. Planck pulled out the correct curve of the galley with a lucky intuition, without fully understanding the phenomenon he was explaining. In the family order, it is worth remembering that Planck’s youngest son was brutally murdered by the Gestapo for having taken part in a plot to assassinate Hitler during 1944. In this process he devised some mathematical artifice so that both could be made compatible. Planck took out the correct curve of the galley with a lucky intuition, without fully understanding the phenomenon he was explaining. In the family order, it is worth remembering that Planck’s youngest son was brutally murdered by the Gestapo for having taken part in a plot to assassinate Hitler during 1944. In this process he devised some mathematical artifice so that both could be made compatible. Planck took out the correct curve of the galley with a lucky intuition, without fully understanding the phenomenon he was explaining. In the family order, it is worth remembering that Planck’s youngest son was brutally murdered by the Gestapo for having taken part in a plot to assassinate Hitler during 1944.

Erwin Schrodinger (1887-1961):Austrian physicist who developed the formulation of quantum physics known as wave mechanics, receiving as a result of these works, the Nobel Prize in 1933. He is recognized as an old-school scientist, whose work on wave mechanics, aimed to rescue common sense according to classical ideas, for quantum physics. The idea behind wave mechanics arises from the work done by Louis de Broglie who considered electrons in their wave behavior. Regarding the strange concepts that quantum supposed such as the quantum leap or the role of the observer in determining reality, Schrodinger said: “This displeases me and I would have liked nothing to do with the development of this discipline.” With the arrival of the Nazis to power, Schrodinger moved to Oxford where he did not stay long. I return to Austria, later I move to Italy, USA and finally to Ireland. During his stay in this country, he wrote a book called “What is life?” That encouraged a large number of physicists to focus on the study of molecular biology after the end of the war. Its fundamental development was the so-called wave equation, which was used in one of the versions of quantum physics to describe the behavior of a quantum entity such as an electron or a photon. This was the beginning of what is known as wave mechanics, which was the framework preferred by scientists to solve the problems implicit in quantum interactions. This preference was due to the fact that physicists were familiar with the language of wave equations.

Louis de Broglie (1892-1987):He was a prince of the French nobility, who initially studied History at La Sorbonne, and began in science because of the influence of his older brother. The genius of de Broglie is that he extrapolated what emerged from Einstein’s work about the photoelectric effect, where something like light that was considered a wave, also had particle behaviors, to the world of the material. So he wondered if this happens with what we considered waves, it could be the same with what we consider particles. His concern was true, and he could only reach a PhD thesis, thanks to the intellectual support provided by Einstein who was asked about whether this student was trying to discuss, was not a silly one. Einstein was concise but blunt, and told Paul Langevin, de Broglie’s tutor, “I think this is more than a mere analogy,” and so from Broglie he received his doctorate in physics. Both Louis and his brother were involved in the peaceful development of atomic energy.

Werner Heisenberg (1901-1976):He was born in Germany and is one of the founding fathers of quantum physics. His greatest discovery is the so-called Uncertainty Principle. The formal expression of this principle says that the amount of quantum uncertainty in the simultaneous determination of both members of a pair of conjugate variables is never zero. In quantum physics, the concept of uncertainty is something precise and defined. There are pairs of parameters called conjugate variables, for which it is impossible to know the value they acquire at the same time. The best known of these conjugate variables are position and momentum (speed, amount of movement), as well as energy and time. The position / moment uncertainty is the typical Heisenberg explained in 1927, saying that no quantum entity can have a precise and determined velocity, and a position also precise and determined at the same time, that is simultaneously. This was not the result of deficiencies in the systems or devices, or difficulties in the measurement process; that is, we could not physically perform this measurement. The reality is that quantum entities – the electron for example – do not have a precise position and velocity at the same time. This uncertainty, as already mentioned, is what explains the phenomenon called tunnel effect. The uncertainty of the energy / time conjugate variables is what allows us to identify the existence of the so-called virtual particles. Quantum uncertainty, however, does not manifest sensibly in large objects, that is, objects larger than a molecule,-3. 4. Heisenberg worked with Born and Bohr before becoming a professor at the University of Leipzig. Since he remained in Germany during World War II, he was suspected of having sympathy for the Nazi regime. The allies feared it was one of the scientists who could facilitate the development of the atomic bomb for the Germans. In fact, given the limited research in this area, carried out in Germany during the time, it only allowed him to concentrate on the development of means for obtaining energy and not on armaments. Heisenberg always said that this was because he kept the interest focused on this issue. Although some doubt this claim. During a period of recovery from a disease in the mountains of Heligoland, It was when Heisenberg formulated what was later recognized as matrix mechanics, the first quantum theory complete and consistent with the experimental results. Later Born and Jordan helped complete it by giving it a more perceptible physical significance. A copy of the work of these three scientists before it was published, was the inspiration for Paul Dirac to elaborate his own version of quantum theory. All this happened a year before Schrodinger published his version of wave mechanics as another approach to the same quantum theory. In just a couple of years, three hundred years of classical physics were revolutionized. Later Heisenberg developed the concept of uncertainty. After the war, Heisenberg played an important role in the establishment of the Max Planck Institute for Physics. His latest scientific works tried in vain to develop a unified theory of the fields. He was a proponent of the idea of ​​”all indivisible” in which everything in the world and especially in the quantum world, is part of a single system, which for example allowed to explain in the double slot experiment, because electrons have different behaviors depending on whether or not you are observing what slot they are going through. These ideas, although not taken into account, were subsequently developed by David Bohm. because electrons have different behaviors according to whether or not they are observing what slot they are going through. These ideas, although not taken into account, were subsequently developed by David Bohm. because electrons have different behaviors according to whether or not they are observing what slot they are going through. These ideas, although not taken into account, were subsequently developed by David Bohm.



Max Born (1882-1970):German physicist who introduced the idea that the results of the experiments or interactions in which quantum entities participate, are not directly deterministic, but are intrinsically probabilistic. After the war in 1920 Gottingen was established where from the chair of theoretical physics developed a center of excellence in this discipline, somewhat less recognized than the Niels Bohr Institute in Copenhagen. During the 1920s Born had the participation of renowned physicists such as Heisenberg, Jordan and Pauli. When Heisenberg developed his mathematical description of quantum physics, it was Born who recognized his intimate connection with matrix theory. Working together with Heisenberg and Jordan, they concluded in the first consistent and complete version of quantum mechanics. Somewhat later Schrodinger concluded the wave version of quantum mechanics, based on treating quantum entities (electrons, photons, subatomic particles), as if they were waves. Born was the one who showed that the waves in Schrodinger’s quantum mechanics could be considered not as a physical reality, but as representations of probabilities. Thus I become the strongest proponent of the idea that the result of any interaction within the quantum world, will be determined, in a strictly mathematical sense, by the probability of occurrence of said result among many of the possible ones allowed by physical laws. He was of Jewish family reason why he was forced to leave Germany during the Nazi regime, emigrating towards England first and finally Scotland, returning to Germany with British nationality after the end of the war. He was a great pacifist, being part of active opponents of the development of nuclear weapons. He died at 87 years old.

Paul Dirac (1902-1984):English physicist born in Bristol. After graduating as an electrical and mathematical engineer, I enter Cambridge under the supervision of Ralph Fowler, it is only here in Cambridge that he comes into contact with quantum theory. In 1925, Heisenberg gave an exhibition in Cambridge, where Dirac was part of the audience. While he did not discuss his ideas in that talk, he did it privately with Fowler and sent him a copy of his unpublished work about the approach to quantum theory through the concepts of matrix mechanics. Fowler showed Dirac the job and asked for an opinion based on his mathematical knowledge. Thus Dirac using what he already knew made his own development of this theory, known as Operator Theory or Quantum Algebra. After obtaining his doctorate in 1926, Dirac visited the Niels Bohr Institute in Copenhagen, where he showed that both Heisenberg’s matrix mechanics and Schrodinger’s wave mechanics were special cases of his own operator theory or quantum algebra, and that others were totally equivalent. In 1927, Dirac introduced the idea of ​​second quantization to quantum physics, opening the way to the development of quantum field theory. However, his greatest contribution to the field of science is due to the equation that he developed incorporating the concepts of quantum physics and the requirements of the special theory of relativity, in order to give a complete explanation of the electron. One of the outstanding points of this equation was that it had two solutions, corresponding to electrons with positive and negative energies. The latter are called positrons. Dirac had thus predicted the existence of antimatter, until Carl Anderson experimentally detected the existence of positrons in 1932. Dirac also developed the statistical rules that govern the behavior of large numbers of particles whose spin is half of an integer, such as the electrons The same statistical rules were developed by Enrico Fermi, hence they are known as Fermi-Dirac statistics; The particles that obey these rules when they are in large quantities are called fermions. After his retirement at Cambridge, he settled in Florida USA as a professor at Florida State University until his death. until Carl Anderson experimentally detected the existence of positrons in 1932. Dirac also developed the statistical rules that govern the behavior of large numbers of particles whose spin is half of a whole number, such as electrons. The same statistical rules were developed by Enrico Fermi, hence they are known as Fermi-Dirac statistics; The particles that obey these rules when they are in large quantities are called fermions. After his retirement at Cambridge, he settled in Florida USA as a professor at Florida State University until his death. until Carl Anderson experimentally detected the existence of positrons in 1932. Dirac also developed the statistical rules that govern the behavior of large numbers of particles whose spin is half of a whole number, such as electrons. The same statistical rules were developed by Enrico Fermi, hence they are known as Fermi-Dirac statistics; The particles that obey these rules when they are in large quantities are called fermions. After his retirement at Cambridge, he settled in Florida USA as a professor at Florida State University until his death. such as electrons. The same statistical rules were developed by Enrico Fermi, hence they are known as Fermi-Dirac statistics; The particles that obey these rules when they are in large quantities are called fermions. After his retirement at Cambridge, he settled in Florida USA as a professor at Florida State University until his death. such as electrons. The same statistical rules were developed by Enrico Fermi, hence they are known as Fermi-Dirac statistics; The particles that obey these rules when they are in large quantities are called fermions. After his retirement at Cambridge, he settled in Florida USA as a professor at Florida State University until his death. 

v     Wolfgang Pauli (1900-1958):Austrian physicist whose main contribution to quantum theory is the so-called exclusion principle, for which he received his Nobel Prize. His talent was demonstrated when in a 200-page paper he presented a comprehensive review of Einstein’s theories of relativity in his special and general versions. His famous Exclusion Principle was published in 1925. He explained why each orbital in an atom (at that time electrons were still thought of in orbits, although the principle also applies now) could be occupied at most by two electrons. The principle states that two fermions cannot occupy the same quantum state, that is, they cannot have the same quantum numbers. This principle is what requires that the electrons in the atom occupy different levels of energy instead of grouping all in the lowest level of energy. Without the existence of this quantum exclusion there would be no chemistry. The so-called energy levels are those allowed for a quantum system such as an atom, and correspond to the different amounts of energy stored. In the atom, an electron has a well defined amount of energy corresponding to its place in the atomic structure. Other quantum systems such as molecules or atomic nuclei also have well-defined energy levels. In the quantum world a fundamental characteristic is that quantum systems pass directly from one energy level to another without intermediate stages, this is the well-known quantum leap.

David Bohm (1917-1992):Physicist and philosopher of American science, who made important contributions to the interpretation of quantum mechanics. He approached science through science fiction readings and later astronomy. In the days of Mc Carthy he was thrown out of Princeton University for refusing to involve certain co-workers as members of the communist party. He moved to Brazil where he worked at the University of São Paulo, then went to Israel and finally to England. His book of Quantum Theory is considered one of the most accessible to understand the interpretation of Copenhagen. In the process of clarifying this interpretation, Bohm was convinced that he had errors, and so he spent the rest of his career developing and promoting an alternative version of the interpretations of quantum theory, known as that of hidden variables or that of the pilot wave or the indivisible whole. Bohm referred to this as the ontological interpretation. One of the main aspects incorporated in the interpretation of Bohm, is the phenomenon called non-local or the instantaneous remote action that takes place between two quantum entities; This phenomenon was proven with the Alain Aspect experiment in the 80’s. Bohm also worked on several philosophical problems linked to modern ideas of physics and the nature of human consciousness. it is the phenomenon called non-local or instant remote action that takes place between two quantum entities; This phenomenon was proven with the Alain Aspect experiment in the 80’s. Bohm also worked on several philosophical problems linked to modern ideas of physics and the nature of human consciousness. it is the phenomenon called non-local or instant remote action that takes place between two quantum entities; This phenomenon was proven with the Alain Aspect experiment in the 80’s. Bohm also worked on several philosophical problems linked to modern ideas of physics and the nature of human consciousness.

He was the greatest physicist of his generation, at the height of Newton and Einstein. Feynman reformulated quantum mechanics by putting it in a logical foundation incorporating the concepts of classical mechanics. I develop the field integral approach to quantum physics from which the clearest and most complete version of quantum electrodynamics (QED) emerged, which together with the general theory of relativity is one of the most successful and well established, in terms of explaining all the experimental phenomena where it has been applied. He was an excellent teacher, who knew how to popularize science. Feynman studied at MIT where he started in Mathematics and then moved to Physics. In Princeton under the supervision of John Wheeler he developed his work for the doctorate. I work in Los Alamos on the project for the development of the atomic bomb. After the war, he was hired by Cornell University to work as a professor of theoretical physics. It is there where he completed his work in quantum electrodynamics for which he received the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1965. In 1950 he moved to Caltech staying at the University until the end of his career. In 1950 he developed the theory of superfluids and discovered a fundamental law that described the behavior of the weak force. At the beginning of 1960, Feynman dictated his famous classes that were later edited in three volumes such as “Feynman’s Physics classes” that had an impact on the teaching of this discipline throughout the world. I also develop the theory of the partons to describe what happens when electrons arise from inelastic collisions between protons. This was an important input for the further development of the theory of quarks, gluons and strong force. Almost as a hobby, Feynman also investigated the theory of gravity and laid the foundation for the development of a quantum theory of gravity.

Murray Gell-Mann (1929-):American physicist who won his Nobel Prize in 1969 for his work on the classification of fundamental particles. It was he who introduced the concept of quarks. He was a child prodigy receiving his PhD in physics at age 22 at MIT. He worked from 1956 until the end of his career at Caltech together with Richard Feynman, from whom he always felt his intellectual shadow .. In 1953, Gell-Mann and a Japanese physicist – Nishijima – working independently, explained certain properties of the fundamental particles, assigning to them a property called strangeness. This property was called that simply because these particles were strange due to their excessively long life, compared to other similar particles.

Science, as it is currently defined, proposes critical knowledge and attempts to describe reality and explain it through laws that are universal propositions that establish under what conditions certain events will occur, thus allowing the prediction of phenomena, provided they are deprived. of feelings, sensations and emotions. Physics, on the one hand, brings us closer to the knowledge of the material elements that constitute the next Nature, and on the other, it tries to investigate the origin of the Universe and its evolution through theoretical analytical models, and all of this, by resorting to the abstract reason of the Useful math tool. Physicists use research in its fundamental or applied aspect, depending on whether they are theoretical or experienced. In any case, the ultimate goal, perhaps utopian, is to build a model capable of solving each and every one of the questions that can be raised from general relativity and quantum physics, unifying them into a single theory. At this time, however, it does not seem possible a physical-theoretical model that contains at the same time the forces that interrelate matter with energy (electromagnetism, gravity, weak or Fermi force and nuclear force) and waves and elementary particles quantum

Quantum physics states that elementary particles, constituents of the atom, are not essentially real elements given their existential inaccuracy. They can behave as particles at any given time and as waves in the next or the previous one. They exist in a space and time that the present does not recognize, they jump from the past to the future, and vice versa. The present material is only recognized as a necessity and an arbitrariness of human observation. However, contradictorily, elementary particles and waves demand their right to be the foundation of matter. Complex paradigm and difficult solution. The curiosity is that both relativistic and quantum physics solve problems as long as it is not simultaneously. This dilemma generated the Uncertainty Principle proposed by Heisenberg, which expresses that there is no element that exists in a certain place and time. Therefore, the velocity and situation of an elementary particle can only be set at a given instant (by Friedmann’s diagram), but it will never be known what will happen in the next instant, nor if it will act as such a particle or as a wave function .

Classical physics was erected by Newton in response to common sense. Matter can be evaluated, its position and behavior are required, movements and speeds, its energies and its results are anticipated. Waves were second order elements compared to particles that alone were sufficient to form matter. Classical physics did not intuit with the necessary insight, the possibilities of waves acting as particles, not knowing these subatomic elements, both extremely close and distant, but closely linked to the life of atoms. It did not go beyond the molecular horizon.

Quantum physics theorizes about the intimate constitution of “real matter” based on two elementary particles: fermions and bosons.

Fermions are the particles that build the structure of matter, and are represented by electrons, protons and neutrons. They are particles that act with some independence and autonomy. Bosons are the vectors that carry the essence and strength of Nature, facilitating the conjunction of the Universe. They are independent particles that always interact with each other, sometimes synchronously, but that under certain conditions lose their individuality. This paradox of the interdependence and individuality of these particles was enunciated by Einstein, Podolski and Rosen. The bosons are made up of gluons, gravitons and photons, always with a unique tendency to the dispersed meeting.

The dynamic interrelation between fermions and bosons, the foundation, especially the photon, which, having no charge, is its own antiparticle. Pairs of electrons and positrons can be created spontaneously by photons, and this process can be reversed as a result of their own annihilation. The antiparticle of the electron is the positron. The collision of a photon (?) With an electron (e-) generates a sharp change in its direction. The e- absorbs? Then, he issues it by changing his address again.

Fermions and bosons, are elementary particles that hold and act in indeterminate moments as wave functions.

Because of the bosons, the fermions move and remain consistent with each other, although independent, in the process of creation. When bosons overlap by the affinity generated by a resonant shared information (concept introduced by the author) they carry a certain identity, but the probabilities of existence as such individual particles decrease, materializing. This process is called falling wave function. This primal affinity can make us assume the presence of an initial elementary state of consciousness. The loss of the individual quality of the bosons is directly responsible for the appearance of a first stage of a material structure aware of its own existence.

Quantum theory can only be expressed in mathematical terms and describes matter as an abstraction. In this sense, matter does not occupy a specific space or a certain time, it is diffused and in a constant discontinuous, random and unpredictable movement, throughout the Universe. The elementary particles do not obey predetermined laws, so for those who observe them in this initial state, they seem to be the consequence of a chaotic situation.

First Minkowski and then his student Einstein, propose the fields or inertial reference planes. Suppose a tourist, who is in Sacrè Coeur, Paris, asks where the building number 10 is located, on the Place de Tête. For a Parisian domiciled in that area it will be very easy to explain, either topologically or mathematically, what the tourist must do to get to that exact address. However, it won’t occur to anyone to ask for that same address if it is 1,000 kilometers high. In any case, ask where Europe is. That is, the facts respond to certain inertial reference planes. Hence the relativity, which in any case responds to the reference associated with the observer himself. It is the world of certainties, where the movement is natural because we control it for the space traveled, for the type of speed, time and energy used. However, for quantum theory, there can be no reference planes, except those that come from a precise moment. It is the world of the unpredictable, where everything flows, where particles appear and disappear, their movements are discontinuous and rotate endlessly in all directions, sometimes as such particles and sometimes as wave functions. Space and time spread in the world of particles that circulate without chronological order, are diluted in fields of wave magnitudes in their own random space and are sometimes complexed, allowing materialization, and in other moments reversing the course weather. Quantum realities are potential states. by the type of speed, time and energy used. However, for quantum theory, there can be no reference planes, except those that come from a precise moment. It is the world of the unpredictable, where everything flows, where particles appear and disappear, their movements are discontinuous and rotate endlessly in all directions, sometimes as such particles and sometimes as wave functions. Space and time spread in the world of particles that circulate without chronological order, are diluted in fields of wave magnitudes in their own random space and are sometimes complexed, allowing materialization, and in other moments reversing the course weather. Quantum realities are potential states. by the type of speed, time and energy used. However, for quantum theory, there can be no reference planes, except those that come from a precise moment. It is the world of the unpredictable, where everything flows, where particles appear and disappear, their movements are discontinuous and rotate endlessly in all directions, sometimes as such particles and sometimes as wave functions. Space and time spread in the world of particles that circulate without chronological order, are diluted in fields of wave magnitudes in their own random space and are sometimes complexed, allowing materialization, and in other moments reversing the course weather. Quantum realities are potential states. there can be no reference planes, except those that come from a precise moment. It is the world of the unpredictable, where everything flows, where particles appear and disappear, their movements are discontinuous and rotate endlessly in all directions, sometimes as such particles and sometimes as wave functions. Space and time spread in the world of particles that circulate without chronological order, are diluted in fields of wave magnitudes in their own random space and are sometimes complexed, allowing materialization, and in other moments reversing the course weather. Quantum realities are potential states. there can be no reference planes, except those that come from a precise moment. It is the world of the unpredictable, where everything flows, where particles appear and disappear, their movements are discontinuous and rotate endlessly in all directions, sometimes as such particles and sometimes as wave functions. Space and time spread in the world of particles that circulate without chronological order, are diluted in fields of wave magnitudes in their own random space and are sometimes complexed, allowing materialization, and in other moments reversing the course weather. Quantum realities are potential states. their movements are discontinuous and rotate endlessly in all directions, sometimes as such particles and sometimes as wave functions. Space and time spread in the world of particles that circulate without chronological order, are diluted in fields of wave magnitudes in their own random space and are sometimes complexed, allowing materialization, and in other moments reversing the course weather. Quantum realities are potential states. their movements are discontinuous and rotate endlessly in all directions, sometimes as such particles and sometimes as wave functions. Space and time spread in the world of particles that circulate without chronological order, are diluted in fields of wave magnitudes in their own random space and are sometimes complexed, allowing materialization, and in other moments reversing the course weather. Quantum realities are potential states. and in other moments investing the course of time. Quantum realities are potential states. and in other moments investing the course of time. Quantum realities are potential states.

Naturally, for an observer it is simpler to develop in the world of classical physics; I could not do it in the quantum world, as this observer needs understandable facts not from acronology. However, fermions, and especially electrons, yes. It is the so-called temporary reversibility event, in which events occur in such a way, that they allow adopting any direction in space and time. This is why the observer definitely influences the creation of matter, it is the one that brings awareness to reality. This allows the wave-particle, body-consciousness and mind-reality dualities, all of them, inseparable aspects of existence. It is the observer who creates the reality of the present moment. If this moment is not observed, it can be generalized by saying that it will spread, becoming extinct in time. Therefore, it is only the awareness of the observer of the event that brings reality. But what if you don’t know about the same event, does it really exist?

The elementary particles appear to be apparently distant in space-time, but in reality, in an underlying domain, the quantum implicit domain allows them to be linked together. According to Bohm, this domain behaves as the interference pattern of a hologram. In the implicit domain of frequencies there is no space, nor distances, and therefore, as Pribiam says: “Separativity is an illusion built into our brain.”

The problem of “who killed the cat” proposed by Schrödinger is known. He thought about who would kill a cat inside a cage. He placed food on one side and a deadly toxic on the other. Ahead he put a radioactive liquid that would give off a particle that could rise or fall. If this particle goes up, the food will be uncovered, but if it goes down, it will uncover the poison. It’s about knowing what will happen to the cat. According to the equation of the author of this puzzle, nothing physical can decide the fate of the cat. Being a quantum reality is in a potential state. Alive and dead at the same time, in two probable states, overlapping and interposed. Only the observer’s gaze can determine the final outcome.

Quantum reality is different as perceived or not, as observed or not.

Electrons that before the perception of the observer were indefinite and unpredictable particles or waves, are transformed, as a result of that same observation, into particles and waves of a formal nature, by means of invisible photons that respond to the observer’s call as a result of their experiment . The cat will live or die, specifying one of the two latent states superimposed at the time of observation. Depending on the moment of observation, Schrödinger will caress or bury him.

From here a big problem arises. What virtual power does the observer have over the creation of reality? The knowledge of the elements that surround us seems to be the link between the quantum world and the common reality. That is, the observer’s conscience is what makes the observed come true. That is why Prigogine says: “Reality is revealed to us only through an active construction in which we participate.” Science, as defined above, does not respond to these characteristics and falls short of its objectives, since its field of action does not contemplate consciousness.

According to Louis de Broglie:

“In the space-time dimension, everything that for each of us constitutes the past, the present and the future, is given in block … Each observer, as his time goes by, discovers new portions of space- time that appear before him as successive aspects of the material world, although in reality, the set of events that constitute space-time exists with priority to his knowledge of them “

The reduction of probability and its conversion is actually associated with the activity and “attitude” of bosons, so they can be considered as the primary background of consciousness (Martínez de la Fe, 1991).

Consciousness is dormant in matter, so it is not something strange to the quantum world: elementary particles associate changes in their environment with observer interference. There is an inexplicable dialogue between man and the particle.Perhaps this is often “… the key of the previous Man”, as Einstein aforementioned.. Consciousness springs from a relationship of coherently arranged virtual photons in the quantum system of the brain.

The observer thus becomes the mirror of reality, which his consciousness must know and assumes the duality: wave-particle, body-consciousness, mind-reality, different aspects but all of them integrated into existence. From quantum physics it can be affirmed that reality is nothing more than a hologram consisting of ordered elementary particles in our brain.

In this way, quantum man becomes the great paradox of the physics of quantum particles.

From the hand of the Physicist David Kaplan, he will show us those mysteries of the Universe, and that thanks to the LHC of CERN, we may discover fundamental pieces of the understanding of the cosmos.

documentary about the Particle Accelerator, but in this documentary about the LHC, in a very illustrative and intuitive way, it will show us in detail what is being done in Geneva, CERN, and will explain to us the nature of the universe, the matter and dark energy, the cosmic radiation, hidden particles like the Boson that would give the quit of the Universe, black holes and other dimensions that we could perceive through symmetric particles not yet discovered.

Highlights of Stephen Hawking visit to CERN (18/09/2009) The

points forts of the visit of Stephen Hawking au CERN (18/09/2009)

Summary of Stephen Hawking’s visit to CERN in Geneva.

Huge compressors like these ar placed on 5 points round the LHC ring and ar wont to distribute gazeous inert gas at the temperature of 80k into the LHC inert gas vessels. Fed by forty power unit of electricity, the LHC cryo installations ar the biggest inert gas plants within the world.

Mega structures – The particle accelerator (LHC)

The particle accelerator in Geneva, with its 27 kilometers of circumference, has compartments such as the LHCb, CMS and ATLAS, where each of them performs a specific function for the study of the beginning of the Universe.

History of CERN and The LHC and LEP particle accelerator

The European Organization for Nuclear Research (official name), commonly known by the acronym CERN (provisional acronym used in 1952, which responded to the French name Conseil Européen pour la Recherche Nucléaire, that is, European Council for Nuclear Research), is the largest research laboratory in particle physics worldwide.

quantum physics
quantum physics

It is located on the border between France and Switzerland, between the commune of Meyrin (in the Canton of Geneva) and the commune of Saint-Genis-Pouilly (in the department of Ain).

As an international facility, CERN is not officially under Swiss or French jurisdiction. The member states contribute CHF 1,000 million annually (approximately € 664 million, US $ 1,000 million).

Founded in 1954 by 12 European countries, CERN is today a model of international scientific collaboration and one of the most important research centers in the world. It currently has 20 member states, which share funding and decision making in the organization. Apart from these, another 28 non-member countries participate with scientists from 220 institutes and universities in projects at CERN using their facilities. Of these non-member countries, eight states and organizations have observer status, participating in council meetings.

quantum physics

CERN’s first great scientific success came in 1984 when Carlo Rubbia and Simon van der Meer won the Nobel Prize in Physics for the discovery of the W and Z bosons.In 1992 it had been Georges Charpak’s flip “for the invention and also the development of particle detectors, in particular the multicable proportional chamber “.

CERN’s success is not only its ability to produce scientific results of great interest, but also the development of new technologies, both computer and industrial. Among the first highlights in 1990 the invention of the www by scientists Tim Berners-Lee and Robert Cailliau, but we must not forget the development and maintenance of important mathematical libraries (CERNLIB) used for many years in most scientific centers, or also Mass storage systems (the LHC will store a volume of data on the order of several PBs each year). Among the seconds we can mention 9 T magnets in several meters, high precision detectors, superconducting magnets of great uniformity over several kilometers, etc.

The twelve original founding members were:

Germany (then West Germany)

Belgium

Denmark

France

Greece

Italy

Norway

Netherlands

United Kingdom

Sweden

Switzerland

Yugoslavia – then withdrew

All founding members remained at CERN, except Yugoslavia, which retired in 1961 and never joined again.

Since its foundation, CERN regularly accepted new members. All of them remained within the organization continuously, except for Spain, which joined in 1961, withdrew in 1969 and rejoined in 1983. The list of members throughout history is as follows:

Austria joined in 1959 (13 members)

Yugoslavia retired in 1961 (12 members)

Spain joined in 1961 (13 members)

Portugal joined in 1985 (14 members)

Finland joined in 1991

Poland joined in 1991 (together with Finland , making 16 the number of participating members)

Hungary joined in 1992 (17 members)

Czech Republic joined in 1993

Slovakia joined in 1993 (together with the Czech Republic, increasing the total membership to 19)

Bulgaria joined in 1999 ( 20 member states).

Currently there are 20 member states.

Observers and stakeholders

Eight international organizations or countries have “observer status”:

Commission

European

India

Israel

Japan

Russia

Turkey

UNESCO

United States

The list of non-member countries involved in CERN programs is completed by:

Algeria, Argentina, Armenia, Australia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Brazil, Canada, China, Cyprus, South Korea, Croatia, Slovenia , Estonia, Georgia, Iran, Ireland, Iceland, Morocco, Mexico, Pakistan, Peru, Romania, Serbia, South Africa, Taiwan and Ukraine.



CERN (European Organization for Nuclear Research) was born in 1954 after several years of gestation and was the result of a joint effort among scientists on both sides of the Atlantic: R. Oppenheimer, I. Rabi, L. de Broglie, P. Auger, L. Kowalski or U. Amaldi, and politicians who sought to consolidate peace in Europe, thus initiating a union from a scientific collaboration.

The CERN mandate, according to its constitution, was aimed at “promoting collaboration between European states in nuclear research of a purely scientific and fundamental nature, as well as in the fields of research directly related to it. The Organization will have no relation to military matters.

After 50 years, the history of CERN translates into one of the most successful scientific adventures of the last century. The Organization went from a childhood whose destiny was the reconstruction of Fundamental Physics in Europe to a maturity in which it consolidates itself as the world leader in High Energy Physics, a discipline that requires complex and advanced technological facilities. CERN has made key contributions to the world of knowledge of the intimate structure of matter and fundamental forces: from the confirmation of the validity of quantum electrodynamics as a theory of electromagnetic interactions to the verification of the Standard Model, which jointly describes the electromagnetic, weak and strong forces ; without forgetting the essential discoveries that validated the unified electroweak theory.

It has also played a relevant role in the discovery of multiple particles that allowed to intuit the existence of quarks or in the determination of the number of elementary components of matter, also studying the internal structure of nucleons. In addition, we are familiar with the first experiments with antiparticles carried out in the Organization or the mass production of antinuclei, determining properties that, in the process of energy conversion in matter and antimatter, favor matter, possible explanation of the lack of signs of antimatter in the Universe.

In 1949 Nobel laureate in physics Luis de Broglie proposed the creation of a scientific and European laboratory at the European Conference of Culture in Lausanne. A year later, in Geneva and on the occasion of the V General Conference of UNESCO, Isidore Rabi, also Nobel laureate, proposed a resolution that was adopted unanimously authorizingUNESCO to “provide help and promote the coaching and organization of laboratories so as to market international collaboration of the scientific community.” In 1952, eleven European governments decided to create the Conseil Européen pour la Recherche Nucléaire (CERN).

Finally, in September 1954, CERN began operating by establishing its headquarters in Geneva. The founding countries were: Federal Republic of Germany, Belgium, Denmark, France, Greece, Italy, Norway, the Netherlands, United Kingdom, Sweden, Switzerland and Yugoslavia. Austria joined in 1959 and Spain in 1961.

Spain left CERN in 1969 to return in 1983, Portugal joined in 1985, Finland and Poland in 1991, Hungary in 1992, the Czech and Slovak Republics in 1993 and Bulgaria in 1999. Currently, the number of member states is 20.

Other universal scientists such as J. Robert Oppenheimer, Pierre Auger, L. Kowalski, Ugo Amaldi, also intervened with their effort and will in the creation of the Laboratory.

The contributions of CERN throughout its history

During the 50 years of history of CERN, there have been many contributions to the scientific world in general and to that of physics in particular. Here are some of them:

Knowledge of the intimate structure of matter and the fundamental forces that govern it: confirmation of the validity of quantum electrodynamics as a theory of electromagnetic interactions, checking of the Standard Model, which jointly describes electromagnetic, weak and strong forces, and the essential discoveries that validated the unified electroweak theory. Discovery of multiple particles that allowed to discover the existence of quarks or the determination of the number of elementary components of matter, also studying the internal structure of nucleons. First experiments with antiparticles or the mass production of antinuclei, determining properties that offer a possible explanation of the lack of signs of antimatter in the Universe.



In the history of CERN there are a series of scientific milestones that have marked the future of the Organization such as: the discovery of neutral currents in weak interactions (1973), the detection of W and Z bosons (Nobel Prize for Carlo Rubbia and Simon Van der Meer in 1984), the determination of the number of elementary components and the exhaustive verification of the Standard Model in the experiments carried out with the LEP (Large Electron Positron collider), which began in 1989 and lasted over a period of more than one decade. To continue with the study of the subject

quantum physics

CERN has developed increasingly powerful accelerators, such as: the Proton Synchrotron (PS) inaugurated in 1959, the world’s first collision rings (the Intersecting Storage Rings), 1971, Proton Supersynchronotron (SPS) that began in 1977, the Proton Antiproton Collider (LEP) of 1983 and, still in the process of creation, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), which is scheduled to start in 2007 and will share its 27 km tunnel with the LEP.

Another fundamental milestone for its importance in the culture and development of our society was the discovery of the protocol (World Wide Web) in 1990 by British physicist Tim Berners-Lee. The web arose from the need to create a large network of interconnection of CERN with other computer networks and a common language that would allow all connected computers to communicate directly.

Normally, the first initiative cited of a Europeanist nature was carried out in 1950 by French Foreign Minister Robert Schuman to integrate the steel and coal industries in Western Europe. The result was in 1951 the creation of the ECSC: European Coal and Steel Community, formed by: Belgium, West Germany, Luxembourg, France, Italy and the Netherlands. However, although CERN began in 1954, it is in 1949 when the idea began to take shape, one year before the ECSC proposal.



Official opening of the LHC at CERN, at the right time the LHC permanecia damaged, but the official opening will not be delayed until that according to repair it safe to take place in the summer of 2009.

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